Summer in Turkmenistan is not only the traditional season of holidays and an abundance of fruits and vegetables. It is also a test of high temperatures for several months in a row. It is especially difficult for residents of cities - asphalt and concrete, heated up in the sun, generously give off heat to the environment, further raising the air temperature, and the oxygen content in the air decreases. If high humidity is added to this, such weather becomes even more uncomfortable.
Human organs are adapted to normal operation at a body temperature of about 37 degrees. Our body releases heat into the outside world, so when the air temperature around exceeds 30 degrees Celsius, the body begins to experience discomfort. In summer, in hot weather, mental activity worsens, frequent headaches, insomnia occur, a person becomes more irritable and at the same time distracted.
In the heat, the body heats up and the blood vessels dilate, which leads to a drop in pressure. The heart rate increases because the heart begins to work harder to better pump blood around the body. To cool down, the body causes blood to rush to the surface of the skin, and sweat is released, which enhances cooling.
On the one hand, sweating helps to cope with the effects of high air temperature on the body, on the other hand, it leads to the loss of salts and fluids. The resulting dehydration, together with a decrease in pressure, causes dizziness, nausea, and “flies” before the eyes. To reduce moisture loss, the kidneys go into water-saving mode, which causes swelling, more often on the legs.
At air temperatures above 40 degrees, the body loses its ability to self-cool. If you stay at this temperature long enough, you can get heatstroke. Its symptoms are headache, nausea, confusion, fainting, convulsions.
In Turkmenistan, most adults are acclimatized to high temperatures, but for children, especially the smallest, for the elderly, as well as those with problems with the heart and blood vessels, diabetics, a long stay in the heat, especially in the open sun, is fraught with sunstroke, dehydration, sun burns.
Everyone knows that with low humidity, even 40-degree heat is easier to bear. With temperatures as high as typical in summer in Turkmenistan, a relatively comfortable level of air humidity is less than 20 percent. At higher humidity, the heat is much worse tolerated, since the sweat will simply “pour hail”, not having time to evaporate from the surface of the skin and cool the body. And dehydration with stuffiness comes faster.
It is noteworthy that the inhabitants of the southern latitudes have much more sweat glands on their bodies than the northerners: evolutionarily, the inhabitants of the equatorial regions, deserts, tropics and subtropics are much better adapted to high temperatures than those who live in temperate latitudes.
Lovers of sunbathing in the sun are at great risk to their health. Sunburn is not only unpleasant, but also potentially dangerous, especially for those with many moles on their bodies. It is impossible to determine in advance which of them, under the influence of solar radiation, can turn into a malignant tumor, in addition, the occurrence of skin cancer can provoke permanent sunburn, which occurs in those who do not control their time in the sun. Sunburn is especially dangerous for children. Against this background, such consequences of excessive tanning as photoaging, dry dehydrated skin and age spots look quite harmless, although ugly. A sunburn that covers more than 50% of the skin surface may require hospitalization.
During the hot summer months, it is important to drink plenty of fluids. At the same time, sweet carbonated drinks are not the best option. The sugar contained in them causes the body to produce additional heat, which
only exacerbates the feeling of heat. Ice cream works in much the same way - a brief feeling of cooling from a cold meal or drink is replaced by a feeling of even greater warmth. It is best to drink cool water, chilled green tea with lemon, unsweetened compote.
It is not recommended to wear too open clothes in extreme heat - at temperatures above 40 degrees the difference will be imperceptible, but sunburn is almost guaranteed. Be sure to wear a hat or carry an umbrella, preferably in light colors.
If someone near you becomes ill due to the heat, it must be taken to the shade, laid so that the legs are slightly raised, put something cold on the head, arms and legs, and also give water to drink. If a person faints and does not recover for more than 30 minutes, you need to call an ambulance.
Residents of the southern latitudes are used to escaping from the heat with the help of powerful air conditioners. The air conditioner is able to maintain a comfortable temperature at home or at work even in the most intense heat, but you should also be careful with it - a sharp temperature drop or a long stay under a stream of cold air often leads to colds. How to protect yourself from the harmful effects of the air conditioner, you can find out in this article.
The ability of our body to adapt to uncomfortable climatic conditions, combined with proven methods of escaping from the heat, will allow us to survive five months of the Turkmen summer without harm to health and even with benefit.
Resources: bbc.com; gismeteo.ru; konoshskayacrb.ru