The pectoral brooch “gulyaka” is one of the original and authentic Turkmen national women's jewelry.
Gulyaka is translated from Turkmen as “a flower on the collar”, and the name already shows the reverent attitude of the Turkmen to this unique decoration, it reflects the poetics of folk art.
The brooch is usually made of silver, has a round shape, chased ornament, often decorated with pendants, encrusted with semi-precious stones, mainly carnelian. There are brooches of different sizes and ornaments, but among this great variety, the Gasankuli gulyaka is considered the most famous.
The Gasankuly region of Balkan velayat of Turkmenistan has long been famous for its craftsmen who created truly unique jewelry. Balkan jewelers had a deep knowledge of precious and semi-precious stones, so the design and inlay of each piece of jewelry was approached seriously, with a philosophical understanding. Each master tried to create an exclusive thing that could evoke a feeling of delight and admiration.
The author of the book “Dictionary of Jewelry Terms” (Zergärçilik sözlügi) Gyzylgul Kyyasova dwells in detail on the description of the Gasankuli reveler. In particular, she notes that it differs from others in that, along with the traditional carnelian, turquoise and emerald are used in its inlay.
On the Gasankuli gulyaka, you can see the original traditional patterns of the jewelry craft “aygyzyl”, “gochboynuz” and “ker-kere”.
Russian zoologist V.S. Zaletaev in his book “Ancient and New Roads of Turkmenistan” (1979) described various Turkmen ornaments in sufficient detail. At the same time, he pays special attention to the Balkan jewelry, emphasizing the importance of this region in the jewelry art of Turkmenistan.
Today, the ancient craft is being revived by modern jewelers. It is noteworthy that now, along with men, women are also beginning to engage in jewelry art, creating wonderful jewelry, among which the gulyaka is still a “hit”. As in the past, this unique Turkmen brooch remains a sought-after female adornment.